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The A-91 is a Russian bullpup assault rifle / grenade launcher system developed by KBP Instrument Design Bureau. Its design is derived from the 9A-91, and is in some ways a bullpup version of the 9A-91. Originally designed in 1990, the prototype design featured the 40mm grenade launcher located above the barrel, with the trigger underneath it. The production variant moved the grenade launcher to an underbarrel configuration and moved the trigger alongside the rifle trigger. The production variant is sometimes designated A-91M.

While the grenade launcher is often described as integral, it can be removed replaced with a normal forearm on later models (though it is unclear if this feature is exclusive to the 5.56A-91 or also applies to non-export A-91). The A-91 is one of the earlier (if not the earliest) production implementations of a forward ejection system on a bullpup weapon, like on the FN F2000, though the earliest examples of such a design trace back to Soviet-era prototypes. The cocking handle can be rotated from left to right to suit handedness.

An export variant is made for the A-91, known as the 5.56A-91 (often rendered as 5,56A-91 due to the use of the comma as a decimal point in Russian), chambered in 5.56x45mm NATO. This variant also had a redesign, giving it a new lower receiver with a different grip.

Overall, despite having a rather public appearance, information on the weapon is unusually limited.



A-91 prototype - 7.62x39mm / 40mm
A-91 (also sometimes called A-91M) - 7.62x39mm / 40mm
5.56A-91 - 5.56x45mm NATO / 40mm
5.56A-91 (later model, sometimes designated 5.56A-91M) - 5.56x45mm NATO / 40mm


(1990 - Present)

  • Type: Assault Rifle
  • Caliber: 7.62x39mm (A-91 Rifle), 5.56x45mm NATO (5.56A-91 Rifle), 40mm VOG Caseless (Grenade Launcher)
  • Weight: 8.8 lbs (4 kg)
  • Length: 26 in (66 cm)
  • Barrel length: 16.3 in (41.5 cm)
  • Capacity: 30-round box magazine
  • Fire Modes: Semi-Auto/Full-Auto

The A-91 and variants can be seen in the following films, television series, video games, and anime used by the following actors:


Title Actor Character Note Date
Moscow Heat NYPD detectives A-91 2004

Video Games

Game Title Appears as Note Release Date
Söldner: Secret Wars "A-91" 2004
SOCOM: US Navy SEALs Fireteam Bravo 3 A-91 prototype, integral grenade launcher removed. Incorrectly modeled with 5.56 mags 2010
Battlefield 3 "A-91" 5.56A-91, grenade launcher removed 2011
Battlefield Play4Free "A-91" 5.56A-91, grenade launcher removed 2011
Ghost Recon: Future Soldier "A-91" 5.56A-91, new lower receiver, default version removes grenade launcher but can be reattached 2012
Battlefield 4 "A-91" 5.56A-91, grenade launcher removed 2013

ADS Amphibious Rifle

ADS amphibious rifle - 5.45x39mm / 40mm
ADS amphibious rifle with suppressor - 5.45x39mm / 40mm

The ADS Amphibious Rifle (Автомат Двухсредный Специальный, Special Dual-Medium Assault Rifle) is a dual-medium assault rifle based on the A-91, with a lineage tracing back to the original Soviet APS Underwater Rifle and prototype bullpup designs of the ASM-DT amphibious rifle.

Physically, the ADS is based on the A-91 with the redesigned 5.56A-91 lower receiver. It had modifications necessary for underwater performance. Parts were redesigned and some materials were changed for this goal, and a new "environmental selector" switch was added to the gas system, configuring it for either air or water environments.

The ADS is chambered in 5.45x39mm and uses standard AK-74 magazines. Like any underwater firearm, its underwater lethality depends on its ammo. Above-water, the ADS would use standard 5.45x39mm rounds. Underwater, it would use special 5.45x39mm PSP rounds. The PSP rounds use standard 5.45x39mm casings and have dimensions that allow them to fit in AK-74 magazines, but what makes it different is its bullet, which is a much longer saboted 53mm metal projectile with a flat nose giving it supercavitating properties. Tests have shown that the ADS is competent in both environments; above water, its accuracy is comparable to military-issue AK-74s; underwater, it is more accurate and easier to handle than the older APS rifles, which also perform terribly above water. As of 2018, the ADS is entering mass production and is fully phasing out older APS underwater rifles.


(2013 - Present)

  • Type: Amphibious Assault Rifle
  • Caliber: 5.45x39mm (Rifle), 40mm VOG Caseless (Grenade Launcher)
  • Weight: 10.1 lbs (4.6 kg)
  • Length: 27 in (68.5 cm)
  • Barrel length: 16.5 in (41.8 cm)
  • Capacity: 30-round AK-74-type box magazine
  • Fire Modes: Semi-Auto/Full-Auto

The A-91 and variants can be seen in the following films, television series, video games, and anime used by the following actors:

Video Games

Game Title Appears as Mods Notation Release Date
Depth ADS Rifle 2014

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