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The Road to Calvary (Khozhdenie po mukam) (1977)

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The Road to Calvary
(Khozhdenie po mukam)
KhPM DVD.jpg
DVD Cover
Country SOV.jpg USSR
Language Russian
Creator Vasili Ordynsky
Genre Historical
Broadcast 1977
No. of Episodes 13
Main Cast
Character Actor
Darya Dmitrievna Telegina nee Bulavina Irina Alfyorova
Ekaterina Dmitrievna Roshchina nee Bulavina Svetlana Penkina
Ivan Ilyich Telegin Yuriy Solomin
Vadim Petrovich Roshchin Mikhail Nozhkin
Nikolay Ivanovich Smokovnikov Vyacheslav Yezepov
Aleksey Alekseevich Bessonov Mikhail Kozakov
Sergey Sergeevich Sapozhkov Georgiy Burkov
Liza Rastorgueva Inna Gulaya

The Road to Calvary (Khozhdenie po mukam) is a Soviet 1977 (filmed in 1974-1977) TV series directed by Vasili Ordynsky and based on the eponymous historical novel trilogy by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy. The series depict the fate of sisters Dasha and Katya Bulavins and their beloved ones, Ivan Telegin and Vadim Roshchin, during the Great War, Russian revolution and Russian Civil war.

1977 TV series is the second screen adaptation of the novel, preceded by 1957-1959 series, and followed by 2017 series.

The following weapons were used in the film The Road to Calvary (Khozhdenie po mukam):


Nagant M1895

Nagant M1895 revolvers are most often used handguns in the series. In various episodes they are used by Ivan Ilyich Telegin (Yuriy Solomin), Vadim Petrovich Roshchin (Mikhail Nozhkin), Sergey Sergeevich Sapozhkov (Georgiy Burkov), and many Reds and Whites. All revolvers are of anachronistic post-1930 version.

Note: as there are too many Nagant-wielding characters, some screenshots are placed on talk page.

Nagant M1895 Revolver - 7.62x38R Nagant. This example was dated 1939 manufacture and was a War time issued weapon. Note the angular front sight which was used from 1930s.
Russian officers with Nagant revolvers on shooting range in Ep.4.
Lt. Col. Roshchin hands his Nagant to orderly Aleksey Krasilnikov (Nikita Astakhov) (Note: Astakhov appears as Krasilnikov only in Ep.4; in Eps.5-7 this role is performed by Vladimir Gostyukhin).
Red Army Kompolka (regiment commander) Sapozhkov holds a Nagant in action in Ep.5.
Red Army Komroty (company commander) Telegin and Commissar of Varnavsky regiment Sokolovskiy (Aleksandr Chernov) on the handcar in Ep.6.
Sapozhkov stops the unrest in his regiment.
Chief of Samara militsia Semyon Semyonovich Govyadin (Aleksandr Pashutin) and his subordinates hold Nagants when they break in Dr. Bulavin's house.
Telegin, disguised as White officer, draws his Nagant in the same scene.
Vol'noopredelyayushchiysya (One-year volunteer) Valerian Onoli (Aleksandr Savostyanov) fires his Nagant.
Lyova Zadov (Nikolay Penkov), Makhno's chief of counterintelligence, holds Roshchin's Nagant in Ep.10.
Roshchin looks in the muzzle of his revolver with minds about suicide.
Telegin holds a Nagant in his dramatic moment in Ep.13.

Smith & Wesson .44 Double Action

A nickel plated, pear gripped revolver is seen in hands of an Anarchist (Oleg Kaznacheev) in Ep.8. It appears to be the same Smith & Wesson .44 Double Action that is seen in several other movies, filmed by Mosfilm, like Zemlya Sannikova, Semeynoe schastye and Zhestokiy romans.

Orbea Hermanos nickel plated revolver with pearl grips, a Spanish version of Smith Wesson Double Action - .44 Russian
An Anarchist holds his revolver in center.

Velo-Dog Revolver

In Ep.1 Nikolay Ivanovich Smokovnikov (Vyacheslav Yezepov) draws a pocket revolver during the conflict with his wife Katya. The gun seems to have a folding trigger, and its long (for such small size) cylinder allows to guess that it's a version of Velo-Dog. While most Velo-Dogs were hammerless, versions with exposed hammer also existed.

Velo-Dog revolver with exposed hammer, made circa 1898 in Liege, Belgium - 5.5mm
Smokovnikov draws the revolver.
The grip is seen.


Mauser C96

Mauser C96 pistols are often seen during the events of Russian civil war, notably carried by Komandarm (equivalent to General in Red Army) Ivan Lukich Sorokin (Mikhail Golubovich), commander of the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine Nestor Ivanovych Makhno, known as Bat'ka Makhno (Aleksey Krychenkov), Makhno's chief of counterintelligence Lev "Lyova" Zadov (Nikolay Penkov), and revolutionary sailors Chugai (Konstantin Grigorev) and Latugin (Vitaliy Bezrukov). Makhno's and Latugin's Mausers are most likely of M1930 version.

Pre-War dated Mauser C96 "Broomhandle" Commercial Version - 7.63x25mm Mauser
A gorodovoy (policeman) holds a Mauser C96 in Ep.4. In reality C96s were never issued to Russian Imperial police.
One of the soldiers of Red regiment under command of Sergey Sapozhnikov fires a Mauser C96 (at the left) in Ep.5.
Gymza (Aleksandr Pavlov) (at the right), commander of Red Army regiment, carries a C96 in holster in Ep.6.
Komandarm Sorokin holds a Mauser in the same episode.
Another view of Sorokin's Mauser.
One of Makhno's men holds a Mauser with attached holster-stock in Ep.10.
Chugai carries a Mauser in holster in same episode.
Lyova Zadov with Mauser in holster and cavalry sword in hand in Ep.11.
Mauser C96 M1930 - 7.63x25mm Mauser. Note the stepped barrel.
Makhno carries a C96 in holster in Ep.7. The lanyard ring matches M1930 version (a "Bolo" is also a possible guess but the pistol looks more like a full-size version).
Latugin with Mauser in holster in Ep.12. Again lanyard ring matches M1930 version.

Luger P08

Luger P08 pistols are seen in Ep.4, used by Zhadov (Aleksandr Lazarev, Sr.), his uncredited accomplice and Liza Rastorgueva (Inna Gulaya).

Luger P08 - 9x19mm
A revolutionary, escorting arrested Generals of Imperial Russian Army, holds a Luger.
Another view of the scene.
Zhadov and his accomplice hold Lugers during the robbery of jewelry store in Yalta.
Liza Rastorgueva holds her Nagant M1895 and Zhadov's Luger in the same scene.

Steyr M1912

A bright chrome plated Steyr M1912 is used by notable actor and Anarchist Mamont Viktorovich Dalskiy (Sergey Yakovlev) in Ep.8. It appears the same gun, seen in several movies, filmed by Mosfilm, like Solaris and At Home Among Strangers, Stranger at Home (Svoy sredi chuzhikh, chuzhoy sredi svoikh).

Steyr Hahn Model 1912 - 9x23mm
Several views of Dalskiy's pistol.

FN Model 1903/TT-33

What appears an FN Model 1903 or possibly similar looking TT-33 is hold by an Anarchist in the scene in Metropol hotel in Ep.8.

FN Model 1903 - 9x20mm Browning Long
Tokarev TT-33 - 7.62x25mm Tokarev. Post-1947 version.
A man in peaked cap holds a pistol that looks like FN 1903 but also can be a TT. He also holds a dummy grenade, standing for RG-14.

Astra 300

Dmitriy Stepanovich Bulavin (Nikolai Afanasyev) holds an anachronistic Astra 300 in Ep.8.

Astra 300 - 9mm Kurz (.380ACP)
Bulavin holds the Astra 300.


Mosin Nagant M1891/30

Mosin Nagant M1891/30 rifles, standing for original M91s, are widely used during the events of Great War and Russian Civil war.

Note: as there are too many M91/30-wielding characters, some screenshots are placed on talk page.

Mosin Nagant M1891/30 - 7.62x54mm R
Soldiers of a half-company under command of Praporshchik Telegin cross the river in Ep.2.
Praporshchik Ivan Ilyich Telegin (Yuriy Solomin) fires an M91/30 rifle at attacking Austro-Hungarian soldiers. Pvt. Zubtsov's (Vadim Armyaninov) rifle is seen at the background.
Soldiers of Russian Expeditionary Force in France march on Paris streets, holding their M91/30 rifles, in Ep.3.
Red Guards in Rostov with M91/30 rifles (Vladimir Myshkin at the left).
Vadim Petrovich Roshchin (Mikhail Nozhkin) fires an M91/30 rifle during his service in Red Army.
The hexagonal receiver is a sign of pre-1936 manufactured rifle.
White Army personnel on march in Ep.9. Here are mostly officers who serve as soldiers as it was often seen in White Volunteer Army.
Roshchin in bayonet fencing with Red soldier.
A Red soldier against Roshchin.
Staff Capt. Vasily Teplov (Aleksandr Filippenko) holds an M91/30 rifle.
White Army officers during the battle for Ekaterinodar.
Roshchin bayonets a Red soldier.
Loading. The stripper clip is filled with training rounds.
Vol'noopredelyayushchiysya (One-year volunteer) Valerian Onoli (Aleksandr Savostyanov) with his rifle.
Ekaterinoslav workers take rifles during the uprising in Ep.11.
Red soldiers with M91/30 rifles in Ep.13.

Mosin Nagant M1938 Carbine

Anachronistic Mosin Nagant M1938 Carbines are also seen throughout the series, used mostly by cavalry.

Mosin Nagant M1938 Carbine - 7.62x54mm R
Cossacks carry M38 Carbines during the events of Russian revolution in Ep.4.
A Red Cossack carries an M38 Carbine in Ep.5.
Artillerymen of Varnavskiy regiment of Red Army move a 3-inch gun in Ep.6. They carry M38 Carbines.
Mishka Solomin (Semyon Morozov) holds an M38 Carbine (at the left) in Ep.7.
Aleksey Krasilnikov (Vladimir Gostyukhin) with M38 Carbine and "obrez".
White Cossacks with M38 Carbines in Ep.9.
White Army company commander Rotmistr (Capt.) von Mecke (Emmanuil Levin) cleans his carbine in Ep.9..
Another view of von Mecke carbine.

Mosin Nagant "Obrez"

Makhno's brigands in Ep.7 and Ep.11 widely use Mosin Nagant "obrez" sawed-off rifles.

Sawn-off Mosin Nagant M1891/30 - 7.62x54mm R. In Russian such weapon is called "obrez" which means "cut". It was mostly used by criminals and rebels.
In Ep.7.
Aleksey Krasilnikov (Vladimir Gostyukhin) carries an "obrez" in his belt (Ep.7).
In Ep.11.

Berthier Mle 1907-15

In one scene in Ep.3, set during the Great War, Russian soldiers of Russian Expeditionary Force in France march on Paris streets, holding Berthier Mle 1907-15 rifles with typical French bayonets.

Berthier Model 1907-15 Rifle - 8x50mm R

Mannlicher M1885

In Ep.2 and Ep.3 Austro-Hungarian soldiers are mostly armed with Mannlicher M1885 (or possibly M1886-90) rifles. While standard rifle of Austro-Hungarian army was Mannlicher M1895, older rifles were still in use during the Great War. In Ep.6 soldiers of Czechoslovak Legion also are armed with Mannlicher M85 rifles though in reality they mostly had standard Russian M91 rifles.

Austro-Hungarian Steyr Mannlicher M1888-90 - 8x50mmR Mannlicher. M1885 looks nearly the same except for flat rear sights.
A close view of the rifle of dead soldier. The shape of the bolt and open-top handguard allows to differ this rifle from M95 while the lack of raised sight differs it from M88-90 and M89 models.
A Mannlicher is seen at the background.
An Austrian rifle is seen next to wounded Telegin. Actually Telegin didn't use Mannlicher, having fired only Russian M91 rifle.
Austro-Hungarian soldiers on rest in Ep.3. The soldier at the right holds an anachronistic Karabiner 98k while two others are armed with correct Mannlichers.
Czechoslovak Legioneers on the streets of Samara.

Mauser Gewehr 98

Most German Imperial soldiers are armed with Mauser Gewehr 98 rifles. Screen guns seem to have Weimar Republic era tangent-leaf rear sights rather than Lange-Visier sights that are correct for the Great War G98s.

Mauser Gewehr 1898 - 7.92x57mm Mauser
German soldiers with G98 rifles patrol the railroad station in occupied Rostov-na-Donu in Ep.6.
German soldiers with G98 rifles retreat from Ekaterinoslav after the German revolution in Ep.10.
Soldiers of Kachalinskiy regiment of Red Army on march in Ep.13. They are armed with a mix of Mosin Nagant and Mauser rifles.

Mauser Karabiner 98k

Some anachronistic Karabiner 98k rifles can be seen.

Karabiner 98k - 7.92x57mm Mauser
Austro-Hungarian soldiers on rest in Ep.3. The soldier at the right holds an anachronistic Karabiner 98k while two others are armed with correct Mannlichers.
An abandoned 98k is seen on battlefield in Ep.4.


Double Barreled Shotgun

Some uprising workers of Ekaterinoslav carry Double Barreled Shotguns in Ep.11.

Workers with double barreled shotguns.

Mosin Nagant/Frolov Shotgun

"Frolovka" bolt action shotguns are seen in several scenes. They are used as a substitution for more old "Berdanka" shotguns.

"Frolovka" R-32 shotgun (converted Mosin Nagant rifle) - 32 gauge
A guard of jewelry store (Aleksandr Shirshov) in Yalta holds a bolt action shotgun in Ep.4.
A store guard in Ep.11 holds a bolt action shotgun (supposedly same prop).
A Red soldier at the front fires a "Frolovka" in Ep.12.

Machine Guns

Maxim M1910

Maxim M1910 machine guns are widely used in the series.

Maxim 1910, simplified version with smooth water jacket - 7.62x54mmR
A Russian Maxim, mocked up as German MG08, is used by Austro-Hungarian soldiers in pillbox in Ep.2.
The disguised Maxim is mounted on genuine German "sledge" mounting.
The gunner is chained to the machine gun. Such practice is often mentioned in books and films about both World Wars but appears to be no more than a legend.
A closeup of Russian Maxim in Ep.3.
Poruchik (Lt.) Zhadov (Aleksandr Lazarev, Sr.) fires a Maxim, repelling enemy attack.
Vadim Roshchin (Mikhail Nozhkin) and Red Army soldier Kvashnin (Valeriy Zotov) fire a Maxim in Ep.5. It can be seen that the belt is loaded with blanks.
White troops use a Maxim in Ep.9.
Another Maxim of White troops.
Chugai (Konstantin Grigorev) mans a Maxim in Ep.11.
Soldiers of Kachalinskiy regiment of Red Army carry Maxims in Ep.12.

Maxim M1910/30

Maxim M1910/30 machine guns are also seen in several scenes. Some of them are of post-1940 version.

Maxim 1910/30 machine gun - 7.62x54mmR
White troops use a Maxim M1910/30 in Ep.9.
A barrel of Maxim M1910/30 is seen at the left in the scene in Makhno's headquarters in Ekaterinoslav in Ep.11.
Maxim 1910/30, post 1940 manufacture with top hatch on cooling jacket allowing it to be filled more quickly or with snow - 7.62x54mmR
Soldiers of Kachalinskiy regiment of Red Army use Maxims M1910/30 of post-1940 version in Ep.12.

Degtyaryov DT (visually modified to resemble Lewis)

A Degtyaryov DT, visually modified to resemble Lewis, is used seen in several scenes in Ep.4 and Ep.7. In Ep.9 the fake Lewis is mounted on Sokolov mount of Maxim M1910.

DT machine gun with bipod - 7.62x54mm R
Lewis Gun - .303 British
Aleksey Krasilnikov (Nikita Astakhov) fires a fake Lewis during the night attack on German positions in Ep.4.
Another view of Krasilnikov's machine gun in same scene.
Krasilnikov (Vladimir Gostyukhin replaced Astakhov in this role in Eps.5 and 7) continues using the fake Lewis several years later, in Ep.7.
One more view of the machine gun.
Krasilnikov fires at pursuing German soldiers.
A fake Lewis on Sokolov mount.

Other Weapons

F-1 Hand Grenade

Ivan Telegin (Yuriy Solomin) uses an anachronistic F-1 hand grenade in Ep.6.

F-1 High-Explosive Fragmentation hand grenade
Telegin, dressed as White officer, threatens Semyon Govyading and his men with a hand grenade.

Dummy Training Grenade

Anarchists carry dummy training stick grenades, standing for RG-14, in Ep.8.

Training stick grenade. Such cast aluminum dummies were widely used in USSR for basic training.
RG-14 Russian hand grenade
An Anarchist holds a pistol and a dummy grenade.
An Anachrist holds a dummy grenade.



Poruchik Zhadov carries a Nagant holster in Ep.3.
A police pristav (chief of local police) (Yu. Manshtein) carries a holster for Smith & Wesson No.3 Russian Model revolver in Ep.4.
A gendarme Colonel (Evgeniy Filatov) also carries a holster for Smith & Wesson revolver.
Gorodovye (police officers) carry holsters for Smith & Wesson revolvers.
Belyakov (Nikolay Zasukhin), Chief of staff of Komandarm Sorokin, carries a holster for FN Model 1900 (at the background) in Ep.6.
Telegin, disguised as White officer, carries a Nagant holster.
White officers of Markovskiy regiment with M91/30 rifles and Nagant holsters in Ep.9.
A German officer at the left carries a holster for Luger P08 in Ep.10.


76.2mm M1902 field guns are seen in several battle scenes.

White Army 3-inch gun on street in Samara in Ep.6.
Red Army 3-inch gun is mounted on river steamer Tsaritsyn in same episode.
White troops deploy 3-inch guns in Ep.9.
A 3-inch gun near Makhno's headquarters in Gulyai-Polye in Ep.10.
Red Army 3-inch gun is mounted on river steamer V.P.Lapshin in Ep.11.
Red Army battery under command of Latugin in action in Ep.12.


Cruiser Avrora in Petrograd in Ep.5.
Soviet Navy Project 31 destroyer stands for French destroyer Enseigne Gabolde. The stern 130mm B-2LM twin turret and 57mm ZIF-71 autocannon on superstructure are seen. The sitting man is former White Army Commander-in-Chief Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Yuriy Gorobets) who leaves Russia for emigration. In reality Enseigne Gabolde took part in the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War in the Black Sea in 1919–20, but Denikin left Russia on British battleship Emperor of India.
M1912 naval mine on said destroyer. French name Enseigne Gabolde is seen on the lifebuoy.

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