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How the Steel Was Tempered (Kak zakalyalas stal) (1973)

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How the Steel Was Tempered
(Kak zakalyalas stal)
KZS73-75 Poster.jpg
Poster for 1975 Theatrical Version
Country SOV.jpg USSR
Directed by Nikolay Mashchenko
Release Date 1973
Language Russian
Studio Dovzhenko Film Studio
Main Cast
Character Actor
Pavel Korchagin Vladimir Konkin
Fyodor Ivanovich Zhukhrai Konstantin Stepankov
Anton Nikiforovich Tokarev Fyodor Panasenko
Tonya Tumanova Natalya Sayko
Artyom Korchagin Mikhail Golubovich
Sergei Bruzzhak Sergei Ivanov
Rita Ustinovich Antonina Leftiy
Yekaterina Mikhaylovna Antonina Maksimova

How the Steel Was Tempered (Kak zakalyalas stal) is a Soviet 1973 6-part historical mini-series directed by Nikolay Mashchenko and based on the eponymous novel by Nikolai Ostrovsky. This is the third screen adaptation of the original novel, preceded by 1942 and 1956 movies. In 1975 the TV mini series was reworked into two-part theatrical version.

The following weapons were used in the film How the Steel Was Tempered (Kak zakalyalas stal):


Nagant M1895

Nagant M1895 revolvers are widely used throughout the series. They are seen in hands of Pavel Korchagin (Vladimir Konkin), Fyodor Zhukhrai (Konstantin Stepankov), Anton Tokarev (Fyodor Panasenko), Tonya Tumanova (Natalya Sayko), Rita Ustinovich (Antonina Leftiy) and various Red Army commanders, Cheka operatives, officers of Ukrainian National army and counter-revolutionary conspirators. Except for one instance, the revolvers are of anachronistic post-1930 version.

Note: see additional images on talk page.

Nagant M1895 - 7.62x38R Nagant. Note the angular front sight which was used from 1930s.
Nagant 1895 - 7.62x38R Nagant. The rounded front sight is a sign of revolvers produced from 1890s until 1930.
Pavel Korchagin shows a Nagant, stolen from an officer, to Tonya Tumanova.
He teaches Tonya to shoot.
Pavel gives the revolver to Zhukhrai.
Korchagin, now serving in Red Army, fires his Nagant at a street thug who attacks him and Tonya.
Deadly wounded Chekist Yan Litke (Sergey Polezhaev) fires his revolver the last time.
A good view of the Nagant of a counter-revolutionary conspirator; the rounded front sight is seen. This is the only instance of a correct pre-1930 Nagant in the movie.
Rita Ustinovich holds a Nagant.
A close view of Rita Ustinovich's Nagant.
Korchagin and Tokarev fire at bandits.
A closeup of the Nagant of Grishka Yaroshevskiy (Vasiliy Danilkin).


Mauser C96 "Bolo"

Mauser C96 "Bolo" pistols are seen in several scenes, used by Fyodor Zhukhrai (Konstantin Stepankov), Vladimir Okunyov (Vladimir Talashko), Anton Tokarev (Fyodor Panasenko), and an unnamed bandit of Bat'ka Orlik's gang. Only a single pistol is seen in a time, so probably there was a single prop, reused throughout the movie. It's possibly the same Mauser "Bolo" that is seen in many other Dovzhenko Film Studio productions, like Chyornyy kapitan, Bumbarash, and Tachanka s yuga.

Note: see additional images on talk page.

Mauser C96 "Bolo" - 7.63x25mm Mauser
Fyodor Zhukhrai, the head of Kiev Cheka, carries a Mauser C96 in holster. The pistol has short "Bolo" grip.
Okunyov holds a short-barreled Mauser during the chase after the chief conspirator Zurbert.
Chekist Anton Tokarev holds a Mauser during the operation against the counter-revolutionary conspiracy in Kiev.
Tokarev's pistol is seen in muzzle flash of Korchagin's revolver.
Small grip with side to side lanyard ring of Zhukhrai's pistol is seen.
Zhukhrai gifts his pistol to Pavel Korchagin (Vladimir Konkin).
A Mauser is seen in hands of sneaking bandit.

Luger P08

In one scene a street thug (uncredited) holds a Luger P08 during the assault on Pavel Korchagin and Tonya Tumanova.

Luger P08 - 9x19mm
A thug with a Luger.
He holds Korchagin at gunpoint.
After the first shot the jointed arm of the Luger locks in rear position; despite this, the thug "fires" once more.

Unidentified pistol

The editor-in-chief of Bolshevik newspaper Irina Aleksandrovna (Elza Radzina) owns a pistol. The shape and size of the gun and position of the safety are close to Walther Model 4 but the ejection port is placed on the right side (Model 4 has it on left side). This feature matches Walther Model 6, scaled-up version of Model 4, but Model 6 seems to be too large for the screen pistol (and also is a very scarce gun).

Walther Model 4 - .32 ACP
Irina Aleksandrovna holds the pistol.
The pistol on the table. It lies on a sheet of paper that allows to estimate the size of the pistol: if the paper has standard 8.3" width, the pistol must be about 5.5-6" (140-150mm); the length of Walther Model 4 is 151 mm, while the length of Model 6 is 215 mm. The safety is placed on the left side of the pistol, and the ejection port on the right side.


Mosin Nagant M1891

Mosin Nagant M1891 rifles, mostly Dragoon model, are used by Ukrainian National army, Red Army, Komsomol activists, conspirators and bandits.

Note: see additional images on talk page.

Russian Mosin Nagant M1891 Dragoon Rifle - 7.62x54mm R
Ukrainian soldiers with rifles during anti-Jewish violence in the town of Shepetovka.
Fyodor Zhukhrai (Konstantin Stepankov), escaped from arrest, fires the rifle, captured from his convoy.
A Red Army man carries a rifle with bayonet, attached backwards.
A Red Army man at the left carries a rifle.
Red Army men stand in formation with rifles. The bayonets are of 91/30 model.
Zhukhrai, Anton Tokarev (Fyodor Panasenko) and their comrades carry a Maxim and rifles for the railway construction.
A good view of the barrel and bayonet (M91/30 version) of a man, carrying wounded Tokarev.
Rifles with bayonets are seen during the funeral of a Komsomol activist Grishutka, murdered by bandits.
This close view of the rear sight and hex receiver allows to identify pre-1930 rifle.

Mosin Nagant M1938 Carbine

Out of time Mosin Nagant M1938 Carbines are seen in several scenes, used by cavalrymen of Ukrainian National army and Red Army.

Mosin Nagant M1938 Carbine - 7.62x54mm R
Cavalrymen of Ukrainian National army pursue Zhukrai and Korchagin. Their rifles appear to be M38 Carbines.
A Red Army cavalryman (Viktor Malyarevich) carries an M38 Carbine.
Red cavalrymen carry M38 Carbines.
Wounded Pavel Korchagin (Vladimir Konkin) carries an M38 Carbine.
A Red cavalryman at the background carry M38 Carbines.

Mosin Nagant "obrez"

Several bandits are seen with Mosin Nagant "obrez" sawed-off rifles.

Sawn-off Mosin Nagant M1891/30 "obrez"
A bandit of Bat'ka Orlik's gang holds an "obrez".
Bandit Yaroshevskiy (Lev Perfilov) aims at Pavel Korchagin.
Another view of the scene.
A close view of the gun.
A general view of the "obrez".
Yaroshevskiy readies and fires at Komsomol activist Grishutka (Pyotr Mironov), mistaking him with Korchagin.

Machine Guns

Maxim M1910

Maxim M1910 machine guns are seen in several scenes, notably during the defend of the railway construction against bandits when machine guns are served by Anton Tokarev (Fyodor Panasenko), Vladimir Okunyov (Vladimir Talashko) and Pavel Korchagin (Vladimir Konkin) (only a single machine gun is seen in a time so probably it's the same prop reused).

Note: see additional images on talk page.

Maxim 1910, simplified version with smooth water jacket - 7.62x54mmR
Closeups of a Maxim in Pavel Korchagun's dream, in which he is executed by the enemies of revolution.
Klavichek (A. Lutsyuk) carries a Maxim, confiscated from uncovered counter-revolution conspirators.
Komsomol activists carry a Maxim and numerous rifles to defend the railway construction.
A Maxim on position.
A closeup of the barrel.
Pavel Korchagin fires the Maxim.
Another view of the Maxim.


76.2 mm divisional gun model 1902

In one scene a Red Army unit is armed with 76.2 mm divisional gun model 1902.

76.2mm M1902 Putilov Field Gun
3-inch gun on railway flatcar.
3-inch gun on railway station.

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