Pattern 1914 Enfield

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The Pattern 1914 Enfield was a derivative of a rifle that originally began as a replacement for the SMLE in British Army service. It is a Mauser-type action with 2 forward locking lugs, an external non-rotating claw extractor, and a staggered-column box magazine contained entirely within the stock. It can be easily identified by the prominent metal "ears" that protect both the front sight and the receiver-mounted rear sight.

Pattern M1914 (P 14) Enfield - .303 UK
Pattern M1914 (P 14) Enfield sniper variant fitted with telescopic sight - .303 UK
Sporterized Pattern M1914 (P 14) Enfield - .303 UK
M1917 Enfield - .30-06 Springfield

Contents


Background

Development

During the Second Boer War (1899-1902), the British Army found that the SMLE rifle chambered in .303 was severely outclassed by the M1895 Mauser rifles used by the Boer forces. The high velocity and flat trajectory of the 7x57mm Mauser cartridge proved much more accurate and powerful at long range than the British .303 MKIII cartridge, giving the Boers a decisive advantage in the open veldt of South Africa. Attempts to upgrade the Lee-Enfield design proved unsuccessful due to its rear-mounted locking lugs, and in 1910 the Small Arms Committee issued a requirement for a Mauser-type rifle with front-locking lugs, single-piece stock, and small-caliber cartridge. In 1911 the Royal Small Arms Factory produced a modified cock-on-closing Mauser-type design, which was adopted for testing in 1913 as: Rifle, Magazine, Enfield, .276-inch, colloquially known as the Pattern 13.

Pattern 13

The new rifle featured a Mauser-type cock-on-closing action with front locking lugs, non-rotating claw extractor, and a staggered 5-round box magazine contained within the one-piece stock. The bolt handle had a distinctive "dogleg" shape, bringing it down and back toward the operator's hand. A 2-position thumb safety was located on the right side behind the bolt handle. The rifle had a 26" barrel, with a protected front sight, and aperture rear sight with flip-up elevation ladder mounted on the receiver bridge, which gave the rifle an extremely long sight radius. It was chambered in a new 7mm cartridge specifically developed for the rifle, the .276 Enfield, which propelled a 165gr bullet at 2,800fps. The rifle was not popular with troops, who reported excessive muzzle blast, overheating, and rifling wear.

Pattern 14

When World War I began, it was determined that it would be impractical to convert the British Army to a new rifle and cartridge, and development of the .276 Enfield was forgotten. Production of the rifle in Britain was also impossible, as all available facilities were cranking out SMLE MkIII's. However, it was decided that the rifle could be re-chambered in .303 without altering the basic design. Thus the design became: Rifle, .303 Pattern 1914. The British government then contracted out production of the Pattern 14 to Winchester Repeating Arms and Remington Arms in the United States. From 1915-1917 1,235,298 rifles were produced by Winchester, Remington, and Remington's subsidiary Baldwin Locomotive Works in Eddystone, Pennsylvania. The rifle's length and weight made it unpopular with regular troops, who found it difficult to wield in the close-range combat of trench fighting. It was, however, popular with snipers, where its barrel length, long sight radius, and weight made it more accurate than the SMLE.

M1917

When the United States entered World War I in 1917, the M1903 Springfield was the standard-issue battle rifle of the US Army and US Marine Corps. However, only 840,000 had been produced, and the United States desperately needed an alternative to arm the American Expeditionary Force. The Pattern 14 rifle, then in production for the British Army, was found to be easily converted to the US .30-06 service cartridge. All production of the P14 was ceased, and Winchester, Remington, and Eddystone began manufacturing the new U.S. Rifle, Caliber .30, Model of 1917. From 1917-1918, 2,193,429 rifles were produced, far outnumbering M1903 production. By the end of the war, roughly 75% of the American Expeditionary Force was armed with the M1917. Like the British troops, American soldiers disliked the rifle for its length and weight; with its 17" bayonet it was usually taller than the man carrying it.

Specifications

  • Weight: P13: 8lb. 11 oz. (3.9kg); P14: 9 lb. 6 oz.(4.25kg); M1917: 9 lb. 3oz.(4.17kg)
  • Length: 3 ft. 10.25 in. (1175 mm)
  • Barrel length: 26.0 in (660 mm)
  • Cartridge: .276 Enfield (Pattern 13); .303 Enfield (Pattern 14); .30-06 Springfield (M1917)
  • Action: Modified Mauser turn bolt
  • Muzzle velocity: 2,785 ft/s(848.9m/s); 2380 ft/s (725.6m/s); 2700 ft/s (823 m/s)
  • Feed system: P13, P14: 5-round box magazine; M1917: 6-round box magazine

The Pattern 1914 Enfield and variants can be seen in the following films, television series, video games, and anime used by the following actors:

Film

Title Actor Character Note Date
The Lost Battalion American soldiers 1919
Sniper British soldiers Enfield P14 1931
Horizon (Gorizont) American soldiers Unclear model 1932
If War Comes Tomorrow (Esli zavtra voyna) Enemy troops Enfield P14 1938
Fighting Film Collection No. 3 (Boyevoy kinosbornik No. 3) British soldiers Seen in documentary footage 1941
Went the Day Well? British Home Guard/German Paratroopers 1942
The Poet Red sailors and cavalrymen Likely Enfield P14 1957
The Golden Eshelon (Zolotoy eshelon) Arkadi Trusov Lipat Korneevich Enfield P14, some with P1907 bayonets 1959
Aleksandr Tolstykh Stepan Krutikov
Anatoli Yushko Chernykh
Red partisans
Dersu Uzala Adolf Shestakov Captain Vladimir Arsenyev Enfield P14 1961
The 317th Platoon Laotian troops 1965
The Hyperboloid of Engineer Garin (Giperboloid inzhenera Garina) Garin's private army soldiers Enfield P14 1965
The Naked Prey Gert van den Bergh The 2nd Man 1966
Sergey Lazo Imperial Japanese Army soldiers 1968
Night of the Living Dead Posse member 1968
Oh! What a Lovely War American soldiers 1969
The Intervention (Interventsiya) Hold by statues 1969
The Omega Man Charlton Heston Col. Robert Neville 1971
The Hound of the Baskervilles (Sobaka Baskerviley) British Police Enfield P14 1971
The Seventh Bullet (Sedmaya pulya) Hamza Umarov Hairullah M1917 1972
In the Black Sands (V chyornykh peskakh) Basmachi M1917 or P14 1973
The Black Captain (Chyornyy kapitan) Partisans 1973
And on the Pacific... (I na Tikhom Okeane...) Viktor Avdyushko Nikita Yegorovich Vershinin M1917 1974
Red partisans
March or Die American soldiers 1977
The Island of Dr Moreau Nigel Davenport Montgomery 1977
Michael York Andrew Braddock
Dawn of the Dead Seen on a gun shelf 1978
Velvet Season (Barkhatnyy sezon) Spanish Republicans, French police Enfield P14 1978
The Girl from the Legend (Devushka iz legendy) Sharif Kabulov Kabul 1980
Yakhye Faizulayev Habib
Bukharan soldiers, Basmachi
Against the Current (Protiv techeniya) Red sailors Enfield P14 1981
Enter the Ninja Guards 1981
Cossack Outpost (Kazachya zastava) Lev Perfilov Irod Enfield P14 1982
The Pavilion on the Links (Dom na dyunakh) Arkadi Shalolashvili Antonio 1984
Northmour's yacht sailors
Come and See (Idi i smotri) SS soldiers, Soviet partisan Enfield P14 1985
Out of Africa Hunter Supposedly a sporterized Pattern 1914 in .303 British 1986
The Untouchables Royal Canadian Mounted Police 1987
Crocodile Dundee II Paul Hogan Michael J. 'Crocodile' Dundee Sporterized Pattern M1914 (P 14) Enfield 1988
Linda Kozlowski Sue Charlton
Luis Guzmán Jose
Cargo 300 (Gruz 300) Afghan mujaheddins Enfield P14 1989
Richard III Richmond's soldiers 1995
Truman U.S. soldiers 1995
Spawn U.S. honor guard soldiers 1997
The Lost Battalion Rick Schroder Major Charles Whittlesey 2001
André Vippolis Pvt. Lipasti
Rhys Miles Thomas Pvt. Bob Yoder
Arthur Kremer Pvt. Abraham Krotoshinsky
Daniel Caltagirone Pvt. Phillip Cepeglia
Michael Goldstrom Pvt. Jacob Rosen
US Army soldiers
King Kong U.S. Army soldiers 2005
Days of Glory Roschdy Zem Messaoud 2006
Free French soldiers
Assembly (Ji jie hao) Nationalist Chinese soldiers 2007
Intimate Enemies French soldiers 2007
Emden Men French soldiers 2012
7 Witches vigilante 2017
Wonder Woman Ewen Bremner Charlie M1917 2017

Television

Show Title Actor Character Note / Episode Date
Mission: Impossible - Season 2 Warren Stevens Karl de Groot Sporter model 1967
Dad's Army Arthur Lowe Captain George Mainwaring 1968-1977
Dad's Army John Le Mesurier Sergeant Arthur Wilson 1968-1977
Dad's Army Clive Dunn Lance Corporal Jack Jones 1968-1977
Dad's Army James Beck Private Joe Walker 1968-1977
Dad's Army Ian Lavender Private Frank Pike 1968-1977
Dad's Army John Laurie Private James Frazer 1968-1977
Here Lies the Border (Zdes prokhodit granitsa) Basmachi Ep.1 1975
The Meeting at High Snows (Vstrecha u vysokikh snegov) Saidmurad Ziyautdinov Mulabek 1981
Basmachi
Long Road in the Dunes (Ilgais cels kapas) Latvian Army soldiers Ep.2 1982
Fiery Roads (Ognennye dorogi) Ulmas Alikhodzhayev Hamza Hakimzade Niyazi Ep.15 1983-1985
British soldiers, rebels in British India, Ottoman police, Basmachi Ep.9,13,15
Anzacs American troops 1985
MacGyver (1985) - Season 1 - Khalil's tribesmen "Slow Death" (S1E19) / M1917 Enfield 1986
Police Rescue Australian New South Wales Police 1989-1996
Foyle's War - Season 2 Home Guard soldiers All episodes 2003
Foyle's War - Season 3 Tony Haygarth Leo Maccoby P14(T) Sniper Rifle; "The French Drop" (S3E1) 2004
Foyle's War - Season 5 Home Guard soldiers "Casualties of War" (S5E2) 2007
Foyle's War - Season 6 Home Guard soldiers "Plan of Attack" (S6E1) 2008
Doctor Who (New Series) Hooverville citizens "Daleks in Manhattan" 2005 -
Boardwalk Empire Michael K. Williams "Chalky" White 2010-2014
Boardwalk Empire Jack Huston Richard Harrow "Margate Sands" (S3E12) 2012

Video Games

Game Title Appears as Notation Release Date
Battlefield: 1918 P 14 2003
Forgotten Hope 2 Both M1917 Enfield and scoped Pattern M1914 (P 14) Enfield 2005
Sniper Elite III American Enfield Hybrid M1914/17 2014
Battle of Empires : 1914-1918 Enfield P17 2014
Verdun "Enfield M1917" 2015
Battlefield 1 M1917 Enfield Added in Apocalypse DLC (2017) 2016

See Also




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